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  1. Whole House Reverse Osmosis (RO) Setup

    Setting up RO Read more »
  2. Five Stages of WECO Hydra Reverse Osmosis

    WECO Hydra RO Stages

    Read more »
  3. What is WECO Under Sink Reverse Osmosis

    weco undersink ro explanation

    Read more »
  4. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Concentration Goals

    Contaminant Concentrations Allowed in Drinking Water

    Read more »
  5. What are Microplastics and why should I care?

    Microplastics in Water

    Dan Jackson


    What are Microplastics?

    Microplastics are considered plastic particles 5mm (5000 microns) in size or less.  Plastic particles are in wide use in industries such as cosmetics, ion-exchangers in some water filtration systems, air blasting technology, tires, etc.  Microplastics are divided into two classes:  Primary microplastics are in their original form, and secondary microplastics are smaller pieces derived from breakdown of primary microplastics.  Microplastics have a very long degradation process that contributes to buildup in the environment.

     

    Are there health concerns with Microplastics?

    Toxicological effects are largely unknown yet but research continues.  Potential effects center around inadvertent delivery of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a result of concentration of these pollutants in the plastic itself.  For example, ion exchange media used to filter drinking water will concentrate cadmium, iron, and other heavy metals.  Some forms of microplastics can also absorb endocrine disrupters, potentially damaging reproductive health for animals in the food chain and even in humans.  Endocrine disrupters can have large effects even at very low concentrations.

     

    Microplastics in our drinking water?

    An interesting study was conducted by the State University of New York in Fredonia as part of a project sponsored by Orb Media. [i] 

    259 bottles of water were purchased in China, Brazil, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Lebanon, Kenya, Thailand and the United States.  Only 17 bottles were found to be plastic free.  On the average, each liter bottle contained 325 pieces of microplastic.  Included were polypropelene, nylon, and  polyethylene tephthalate.  A bottle of a leading brand (Nestle Pure Life) contained more than 10000 pieces of microplastic.  Bottles from Bisleri, Gerolsteiner and Aqua also had high levels of microplastic contamination.

    Infographic: Study Finds Microplastics In 93% Of Bottled Water  | Statista You will find more infographics at Statista[ii]

     

     

    What can be done about Microplastics? 

    At a home level, mechanical micron sediment water filtration systems work quite nicely.  A step up, reverse osmosis or nano-filter will filter out microplastics, among other contaminants.  At municipal level, cleaning out microplastics in water is a little more complex. 

    Mechanical Filtration systems (many of them multistage) can filter out particles from submicron to larger.  The multistage systems often incorporate a ceramic filter, followed by an activated carbon stage that can remove more contaminants.

    (activated carbon is produced by burning something like wood in a reduced oxygen environment.  This produces granules that have an extremely large number of pores and thus a very large surface area, allowing removal of contaminants by mechanical filtration and adsorption.  Adsorption is the process by which ions or molecules stick to a surface.)

     

    What can mechanical filters remove?

    Filtration systems can remove particulate contamination from roughly 0.5 microns and up in size. These filters cannot remove clorine, arsenic, bromine, flourides, nitrates, and other dissolved chemicals.  They also cannot remove bacteria or viruses.  [iii] 

    Weco Filters offers a complete line of multi-stage water filtration systems, from point-of-use (the end of your faucet) to larger under-sink systems. 

    Microplastics Infographic

     

     

    Reverse Osmosis systems - Reverse Osmosis (RO) incorporate mechanical filtration, an activated carbon stage, a Reverse Osmosis (RO) stage, and a post-filter stage, to put treated water into a temporary storage tank for use.  Reverse Osmosis is a process whereby pressurized water is forced through a semi-permeable membrane whose pores are so small that only water molecules can pass through. These systems are more complex but do a better job of filtering out undesirable chemical and particulate contaminants. 

    RO & Nano Filters

     

    What can RO systems remove?

    RO systems can remove fluoride, salt, chlorine, arsenic (and other volatile organic compounds), herbicides and pesticides. RO systems cannot effectively remove bacteria and viruses.  If this is a consideration, Ultra-Violet (UV) systems can be incorporated as the last stage to kill bacteriological contaminants.  WECO Filters offers a complete line of RO systems.

     

    Why don’t city systems remove Microplastics?

    There is a lot of concern about city water treatment facilities and Microplastic removal.  The simple fact is that most city systems use very large and much rougher filter systems that cannot filter out smaller particles.  City systems are designed to produce water with no bacteria, and filter out the big particles.  They use large tanks with sand and other filter media that just don’t capture the smaller particles.  They do, however, quite well at treating water to kill biological contaminants.

     

    The Bottom Line:

    In the US, cities generally do a good job of producing water that is safe to drink, from the standpoint of biological contamination.  They also do a reasonably good job of filtering out the larger particulate contamination but they are not designed to filter out micron or submicron particulate material.  Removal of these particles, including Microplastics, requires treatment nearer the point of use.

    Dan Jackson is a retired US Navy submarine sailor based in Houston, Texas. Dan works as a freelance writer for Water Engineering Corporation.


    Sources

    [i] Mason, S. A., Welch, V., & Neratko, J. (n.d.). SYNTHETIC POLYMER CONTAMINATION IN BOTTLED WATER . Retrieved from https://orbmedia.org/sites/default/files/FinalBottledWaterReport.pdf

    [ii] McCarthy, N., & Richter, F. (n.d.). Infographic: Study Finds Microplastics In 93% Of Bottled Water. Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/chart/13255/study-finds-microplastics-in-93-of-bottled-water/

    [iii] Contaminant Reduction Claims Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nsf.org/consumer-resources/water-quality/water-filters-testing-treatment/contaminant-reduction-claims-guide

    Microplastics - Emerging Contaminants. (n.d.). ANAN Knowledge Base Administration. Retrieved from https://wqa.org.

    Read more »
  6. Substances Reverse Osmosis Technology Struggles to Remove

    Substances Reverse Osmosis Technology Struggles to Remove

    Nidia K Trejo

    What RO Doesen't Remove

    Reverse osmosis (RO) was first commercialized at UCLA in the 1960s. Now it is used throughout the world at the advanced, end stages of water treatment. The quality of water output from these RO systems is high. This makes the water safe enough for people to drink and can be pure enough for use in industrial processes.

    RO effectively removes dissolved salts that can contribute to water hardness as well as metal ions like lead and mercury. The pore size of RO filters enable proper removal of protozoa, bacteria, and viruses from water. The pores are an order of magnitude smaller than nanofilters and three orders of magnitude smaller than microfilters (CDC, 2008). It is great at targeting common contaminants in water.

    However, there are some contaminants that RO is not so great at treating. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of them. They are substances that can easily become gases. They have high vapor pressures and low boiling points. Environmental scientists and engineers at the University of Wollongong in Australia found that RO technology can remove hydrophilic, water loving VOCs better than hydrophobic, water-hating VOCs from groundwater. High rejection of hydrophilic, carbon tetrachloride and toluene was achieved. Low rejection results were observed with hydrophobic VOCs like benzene and dichloromethane (Altalyan et al, 2016).

    Another type of contaminant that RO struggles to remove effectively are pesticides. They are widely used in agricultural applications and designed to persist. Reverse osmosis experts at the CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in India compared removal of two common phenyl urea pesticides, diuron and isoproturon. Their results indicate that RO filter membrane became more hydrophilic with diuron, which modified the membrane permeability. Isoproturon made the membrane more hydrophobic, which led to higher rejection results (Mehta et al, 2015).

    Results from the two studies show that RO is not optimal against these contaminants.   They give contradictory conclusions on the play of hydrophilic-hydrophobic characteristics. RO just doesn’t work for treating VOCs or pesticides in a consistent trend.

    Other water treatment technologies outperform RO for the removal of VOCs and pesticides. One example is ultraviolet irradiation. Exposure to an electromagnetic radiation source overtime decomposes the chemical structure of the substances into smaller, often less toxic metabolites. Another technology that outperforms RO for these type of contaminants is activated carbon. It works by capturing the contaminants by physical adsorption as a cost effective approach.

    The performance of water technologies really depends on the site-specific contaminants and overall conditions of the water prior to treatment. There is no doubt that the water technologies can perform. The challenge is in considering the complexity of the water that needs treatment.

     

    Nidia K Trejo is a sustainable innovation specialist based in Los Angeles, California. She holds a a master’s degree in fibre science from Cornell University and worked as a graduate research assistant developing metal oxide nanomembranes for potential wastewater treatment applications. Nidia works as a freelance writer for Water Engineering Corporation.

    Sources

    1. Altalyan, Hamad N., Jones, B., Bradd, J., Nghiem, L. D., Alyazichi, Y. M. “Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration.” Journal of Water Process Engineering, Vol. 9, 2016, pp. 9-21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2015.11.010.
    2. Drinking Water Treatment Technologies for Household Use. 2008. https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/pdf/drinking/Household_Water_Treatment.pdf
    3. Mehta, Romil, Brahmbhatt, H., Saha, N.K., Bhattacharya, A. “Removal of substituted phenyl urea pesticides by reverse osmosis membranes: Laboratory scale study for field water application.” Desalination, Vol. 358, 2015, pp 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2014.12.019.
    Read more »
  7. Installing FC-1400 RO Booster Pump Retrofit Kit - Video

    Instructions for Installing the FC-1400 Pump Retrofit Kit for Reverse Osmosis Systems

    Booster Pump Installation Instructions


    Package Contents

    1. Aquatec Pressure Booster Pump Qty 1
    2. Pump Transformer Qty 1
    3. High Pressure Switch (Tank Shutoff) Qty 1
    4. Elbow ¼" Stem x ¼" Tube Qty 2
    5. Elbow ⅜" Stem x ¼" Tube Qty 2
    6. Auto Shutoff valve ¼" Ports Qty 1

    You Will Need

    1. Phillips Head Screwdriver
    2. Machine Screws #10-24 x 1" Qty 4
    3. Stainless Nuts #10-24 Qty 4
    4. Flat ¼ Washers Qty 4

    Installation 

    Stop the water supply to the RO system by turning off the feed water adapter. Turn off tank ball valve and fully open the drinking water faucet to release water pressure in the system. 

    Disconnect all tubes going out from the RO system and place it on a convenient work surface. Disassemble the membrane and post filter. Remove all tubes, check valves, auto shutoff valves, flow restrictors and get access to the top of RO bracket.

    Insert the two ¼" elbow stems into the pump.

    Mount the pump on top of RO bracket and secure with screws. Using washers will reduce vibration & noise.

    Notice the flow direction printed on the front of the pump and filter canisters. Outlet of the 1st stage (sediment) canister will connect to the inlet of the pump. Pump outlet will connect to the 2nd stage inlet (5m carbon) filter. 

    2nd stage canistor outlet should connect to the 3rd stage (0.5m carbon) inlet.

    3rd stage canister outlet connects to the auto shutoff valve (ASO) inlet port side. Outlet of ASO will connect to membrane inlet side.

    Permeate (filtered water) end of the membrane connect to the ASO inlet port side through a check valve. Make sure the flow direction of check valve is set away from the membrane.

    Drain end of the membrane will connect to the under sink drain through a flow restrictor. Again check the flow direction away from membrane.

    Remaining outlet of ASO valve connects to a union Tee branch. This branch also connect to the inlet side of the post carbon filter and the RO pressure tank though the high pressure switch.

    Outlet of the post filter connects to the RO drinking water filter. Secure the membrane and post filter to the RO bracket using clips. T

    Install the RO system under the sink and turn on the water supply. Check for leaks.

    Booster Pump Retrofit Kit Installation



    Plumbing Diagram for RO Booster Pump

    Plumbing and Wiring Diagrams



    The high pressure switch shuts the pump off when the tank pressure exceeds 40 PSI.


    Notice

    Do not subject the pump to freezing temperatures, rain or direct sunlight while in operation.

    Pump will not stop forward flow of water even if the motor is turned off if there is sufficient feed water pressure. Make sure the ASO valve is plumbed in using instructions above as a positive mean of shutting off the water supply.

    Only qualified electricians per local and state codes should do electrical wiring.

    Do not use with water that is microbiologically unsafe or of unknown quality.



    Read more »
  8. Guide for "Salt-Free" Water Softening

    Salt-free softening guide

    Water hardness is measured by the amount of calcium and magnesium minerals in water. Within the water quality improvement industry, Grains per gallon (gpg) is the most common method for designating the water hardness. Lab reports may express hardness using parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per liter (mg/L). Multiply the grains per gallon by 17.1 to get the equavalent ppm or milligrams per liter.

    The Water Quality Association breaks down water hardness into the following categories:

    • Soft:   < 1 gpg   (<17.1 mg/L)

    • Slightly hard: 1 to 3.5 gpg (17.1 to 60 mg/L)

    • Moderately hard: 3.5 to 7.0 gpg (60 to 120 mg/L)

    • Hard:   7.0 to 10.5 gpg (120 to 180 mg/L)

    • Very hard:   over 10.5 gpg (180+ mg/L)

    Scaling is a serious issue caused by water hardness mineral deposits when hard water is heated. This can clog hot water lines and reduce the water flow to water appliances such as dishwashers and washing machines, showers and faucets. Spotting on cutlery, mineral buildup on your kettle, floating particulate matter in tea, coffee are all due to water hardness. Under some conditions these mineral deposits can form sludges which can lead to a sharp decline in operating efficiency of hot water heaters and other water using appliances.
    A Water Softener like the WECO UXC-0948 is a device that reduces hardness causing dissolved calcium, magnesium ions from water. The principal technology behind softening is ion exchange. Ion exchange removes hard water ions in exchange for sodium ions. Softenening reduces mineral scale that clog water pipes and damage water heaters. It takes out the stuff that leaves soap scum in showers and spots on glassware.
    An estimated one in 10 California homes or 1 million households, have a softener installed.
    During the service cycle, the softener allows untreated water to pass over the "charged" resin beads covered with sodium. Since calcium and magnesium hold a higher positive charge than sodium, the resin beads release the sodium into the water stream and hold the hardness causing Ca and Mg ions. Water leaves the softener tank through the outlet port, minus most of the hard ions. This freshly softened water is available now for use by the homeowner, office, gym, restaurant or hospital.

    Eventually most of the sodium ions in the resin bed will be replaced by the hard ions.  When this happens the softener can no longer function properly to reduce hardness until it is regenerated or "recharged". A properly sized and programmed softener will regenerate once it reaches its reserve capacity. Regenerating will backwash the softener at a high water flow rate, flushing out the suspended matter and loosening the bed, which had become compacted during the service cycle. Then a highly concentrated brine solution will force calcium and magnesium ions to be replaced by sodium again. A final rinse will flush out the hard ions as well as excess brine into waste.
    Although the function of a traditional salt using softener has not yet been replaced by any other technology, softener bans and water eficiency standards/green standards are forcing the water treatment industry to research into "salt-free" water softening.
    Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District Ban on Automatic Water Softeners, Measure S (November 2008)
    "MEASURE S: "To reduce chloride levels in the Santa Clara River as required by the State of California and minimize future rate increases for the customers of the Santa Clarita Valley Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, shall an ordinance be adopted requiring the removal of, and providing a compensation program for, all installed residential “salt-based” self-regenerating water softeners within the District’s service area? "
    There are many emerging technologies that comply with local laws which still allow some level of scale prevention. However, none of these alternate systems provide softened water in the traditional sense (except for exchange tank softeners where the resin is regenerated elsewhere).
    • Capacitive Deionization (single pass)   
    • Continuous Deionization

    • Electronic Scale Prevention

    • Magnetic Scale Prevention

    • Template Assisted Crystalization

    • Exchange Tank Softeners

    References:
    Lifsher, Marc. “Soft Water, Hard Problem.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 26 June 2009, www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2009-jun-26-fi-culligan26-story.html.
    “Automatic Water Softeners in the Santa Clarita Valley.” LACSD Website - Automatic Water Softeners, Los Angeles County Sanitation District, www.lacsd.org/wastewater/automatic_water_softeners/default.asp.
    Read more »
  9. Booster Pump Questions & Answers - Residential and Light Commercial Reverse Osmosis

    Do I need a booster pump?

    If you're running city water through your RO system, you probably don't need an additional booster pump. Municipalities try their best to maintain water pressure at individual homes at or above 50 PSI, which is exactly what your residential undersink or countertop reverse osmosis membrane requires.

    Dow Membrane Performance

    FILMTEC™ TW30-1812-100HR Pressure Rating



    Private well systems most commonly have pressurized storage tank and pump systems with 20/40 psi or 30/50 psi on/off pressure settings. This means you will most likely need a booster pump. If you install and run the RO without a pump, when there is no adequate water pressure, more water will be sent down the drain and the contaminant rejection will be low.

    Even if you have enough water pressure, booster pumps are necessary sometimes due to excessive tds, high contaminant concentraions (i.e., arsenic, nitrate, chromium), lower temperatures, or a combination of these problems.


    Can the pump pull water out of a cistern?

    No. The pump’s inlet chamber must be flooded with water for it to operate properly. This translates to at least 5 PSI inlet water pressure to the pump. Use a gravity feed system using an atmospheric tank and then use the booster pump to further increse the pressure.

    Gravity feed water system



    Will the pump work even without electricity?

    As long as there is feed water pressure, the pump will not stop forward flow of water even if the motor is turned off. Be sure the system has positive means of shutting off water supply such as an auto shutoff valve or a solenoid valve. See booster pump installation diagrams here.


    Where should a pump be installed?

    A booster pump is most commonly installed in a reverse osmosis water system between the stage 1 sediment filter and the stage 2 carbon filter. US booster pump manufacturer Aquatec recommends that the pump should always be mounted prior to the carbon pre-filter to prevent carbon particles from entering the pump chambers and possibly causing clogging.

    Most pumps can be mounted horizontaly or vertically. However, if vertical mounting is needed, make sure to place the pumphead facing up to avoid performance reduction. If the pumphead is mounted upside down, air entrapment may reduce the operational performance by up to 15%.


    Can the pump run continously 24/7?

    This will depend on the model of the pump. The Aquatec CDP series pumps are designed for continuous duty. If used for intermittent duty cycle. Make sure that “off” periods are greater than 60 seconds. 

    An RO design with an auto shutoff valve should shut off the system when it reaches appromimately 60% of the boosted line pressure (e.g., a boosted pressure of 70 PSI will = a maximum ro water tank pressure of 42 PSI). RO's with a high-pressure switch (deactivated at 40, 60 or 80 PSI) cuts off power to the pump when the pressurized water storage tank has reached the capacity.


    What boosted pressure can I expect?

    Most Aquatec boost pumps are designed to limit the maximum output pressure to 110 psi, to protect the membrane and other components from damage. The normal operating pressure as measured after the pump, and before the membrane, will be approximately 80 psi. The flow rate of the 6800 series pump during operation is about 500 ml/min. The 8800 is double that flow. If these parameters are not being met, please check the following:

    1.Is the pump properly sized to handle the production rate of the membrane, plus the brine flow allowed by the restrictor (usually 4 or 5 times the permeate production)?

    2. Is the system receiving adequate feed water? The pump’s inlet chamber must be flooded to prevent performance robbing air ingestion into the compression chambers.

    3. Debris entering the pump, such as residue from an activated carbon filter improperly located on the inlet side of the pump, may restrict the pumping operation. 


    What flow rates can I expect from the RO faucet?

    RO faucet flow rateFlow rate from your RO drinking water faucet should be approximately 0.5 GPM if the system is operating properly. Most RO faucets will flow at approximately 1 GPM. The loss of flow from the post coconut shell carbon filter, tubing length, etc. can drop you to the ½ GPM range. 


    When should the pump be serviced?

    Every Year: Check system against operating standards.

    Every 2-3 Years: Replace diaphragm and check against operating standards.


    References:

    1. WECO HYDRA RO Manual. 2017.
    2. Horner, Allan. “Love Plumbing & Remodel of Bellevue & Bothell WA, Terry Love.” Love Plumbing & Remodel of Bellevue & Bothell WA, Terry Love, 12 Sept. 2012, terrylove.com
    3. FILMTEC.  DOW FILMTEC Membranes, www.dow.com.
    4. “TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE FOR R.O. BOOST PUMP SYSTEMS .” Aquatec, www.aquatec.com.
    5. “OPERATIONAL AND INSTALLATION GUIDELINES “CDP” SERIES BOOSTER PUMP .” Aquatec, www.aquatec.com.


    Read more »
  10. General Water Treatment Q & A

    Which type of filter do I need?

    Nearly every water source can be improved with the right water filtration system. Even if your water is under tight federal oversight, it contains substances that cause unpleasant taste and odors.

    Whole House vs Undersink Filtration

    Whole House Water Treatment Options




    What's in my water?

    If you're on city water, you can easily find where your water comes from and what's in it by looking at the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR). Most municipalities mail this each year to you by July 1st.  They can also be found online at the EPA database here.

    EPA Consumer Confidence Reports

    If you're on a private well, you should obtain a water analysis from a certified laboratory. Collect a sample of your water and fill out the test forms, ship it to the lab and receive an in-depth report that has all of your results compared side-by-side with National EPA Standards.


    Gravity feed water system



    What treatment system do I need?

    It's easier to find the correct treatment system once you know what's in your water. 


    Where should a pump be installed?

    A booster pump is most commonly installed in a reverse osmosis water system between the stage 1 sediment filter and the stage 2 carbon filter. US booster pump manufacturer Aquatec recommends that the pump should always be mounted prior to the carbon pre-filter to prevent carbon particles from entering the pump chambers and possibly causing clogging.

    Most pumps can be mounted horizontaly or vertically. However, if vertical mounting is needed, make sure to place the pumphead facing up to avoid performance reduction. If the pumphead is mounted upside down, air entrapment may reduce the operational performance by up to 15%.


    Can the pump run continously 24/7?

    This will depend on the model of the pump. The Aquatec CDP series pumps are designed for continuous duty. If used for intermittent duty cycle. Make sure that “off” periods are greater than 60 seconds. 

    An RO design with an auto shutoff valve should shut off the system when it reaches appromimately 60% of the boosted line pressure (e.g., a boosted pressure of 70 PSI will = a maximum ro water tank pressure of 42 PSI). RO's with a high-pressure switch (deactivated at 40, 60 or 80 PSI) cuts off power to the pump when the pressurized water storage tank has reached the capacity.


    What boosted pressure can I expect?

    Most Aquatec boost pumps are designed to limit the maximum output pressure to 110 psi, to protect the membrane and other components from damage. The normal operating pressure as measured after the pump, and before the membrane, will be approximately 80 psi. The flow rate of the 6800 series pump during operation is about 500 ml/min. The 8800 is double that flow. If these parameters are not being met, please check the following:

    1.Is the pump properly sized to handle the production rate of the membrane, plus the brine flow allowed by the restrictor (usually 4 or 5 times the permeate production)?

    2. Is the system receiving adequate feed water? The pump’s inlet chamber must be flooded to prevent performance robbing air ingestion into the compression chambers.

    3. Debris entering the pump, such as residue from an activated carbon filter improperly located on the inlet side of the pump, may restrict the pumping operation. 


    What flow rates can I expect from the RO faucet?

    RO faucet flow rateFlow rate from your RO drinking water faucet should be approximately 0.5 GPM if the system is operating properly. Most RO faucets will flow at approximately 1 GPM. The loss of flow from the post coconut shell carbon filter, tubing length, etc. can drop you to the ½ GPM range. 


    When should the pump be serviced?

    Every Year: Check system against operating standards.

    Every 2-3 Years: Replace diaphragm and check against operating standards.


    References:

    1. WECO HYDRA RO Manual. 2017.
    2. Horner, Allan. “Love Plumbing & Remodel of Bellevue & Bothell WA, Terry Love.” Love Plumbing & Remodel of Bellevue & Bothell WA, Terry Love, 12 Sept. 2012, terrylove.com
    3. FILMTEC.  DOW FILMTEC Membranes, www.dow.com.
    4. “TROUBLE SHOOTING GUIDE FOR R.O. BOOST PUMP SYSTEMS .” Aquatec, www.aquatec.com.
    5. “OPERATIONAL AND INSTALLATION GUIDELINES “CDP” SERIES BOOSTER PUMP .” Aquatec, www.aquatec.com.


    Read more »
  11. Components of a Home RO Filter System

    Reverse Osmosis System Components

    What are the main components of a residential reverse osmosis drinking water filter system?

    1. Water Supply Connector

    cold water supply adapter

    A water supply connector also known as a feed water supply adapter connects to the house cold water supply as the source of water to the reverse osmosis filter. WECO RO systems come with an adapter that fits both 1/2" and 3/8" supply valves. Your manufacturer may include a variety of fittings, valves, and saddle valves that are available to best match the plumbing configuration.

    2. Sediment Pre-filter

    The sediment cartridge removes sand, grit, precipitated mineral particles, insoluble iron oxide and other debris that can clog the reverse osmosis membrane surface or plug the drain flow restrictor, causing reduced water production. Most WECO ro systems use sediment filters rated to remove particulate matter down to 5 micron. We recommend replacing this filter at least every 6 months. TINY ro sedeiment filters need to be replaced every 3 months.

    3. Carbon Filter for Chlorine Removal

    Drinking water is disinfected by city utilities to prevent growth of harmful bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms that can cause searious illnesses and/or death. However, these chlorinated water supplies can deteriorate TFC membranes over time. Most city water utilities require water leaving the plant to have a minimum chlorine level of 1.0 mg/L (1.0 ppm). After 1000 ppm-hours of free chlorine exposure, the RO membranes may allow increased TDS passage (less contaminant rejection). The carbon filter removes chlorine and protects the membrane downstream of it.

    4. Carbon Filter for Chloramine Removal

    Water utilities like the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) recently started using chloramine to disinfect water. The new standard was by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the State was the result of numerous studies linking the chlorine disinfection by-products to a higher risk of cancer. Reverse Osmosis membranes are able to withstand a higher concentration of chloramines (1 to 2 ppm) versus chlorine (0.1 ppm) before damage to the membrane can lead to lower salt rejection. However, metals such as iron or aluminum in water can act as catalysts and accelerate the oxidation of membranes even at low concentrations of chloramines. Activated carbon is also effective against chloramine. However, since the amount of activated carbon required to provide sufficient contact time for effective chloramine removal is about 5 times that needed for chlorine, most WECO reverse osmosis systems are equipped with a 0.5 micron carbon filter specialy rated for chloramine reduction.

    Pre-filtration for RO

    5. Auto Shut-off Valve (ASO Control Valve)

    Conserves water by eliminating the drain flow when the tank is full. Main purpose of the ASO valve is to controls the water supply to the reverse osmosis membrane. When the pressurized storage tank fills 2/3 of the feed pressure, ASO valve cuts off the water supply to the membrane and waits until the tank is drained down to 1/3 of the feed pressure before turning water back on.


    Auto Shutoff Valves by Hydronix

    6. Reverse Osmosis Membrane

    RO membrane does most of the heavy work in the system. It removes over 96% of total dissolved solids (i.e. salts, minerals, metals), microorganisms and organic substances in water. Membrane divides the water flow into two streams. Filtered water from the membrane goes to the storage tank. Reject water goes into the drain. Most standard RO systems produce around 4 gallons of waste water per 1 gallon purified (4:1) if you're on a city water supply above 70 PSI water pressure. This ratio is controlled by the flow restrictor on the drain line. WECO VGRO systems only waste 1 gallon for every gallon purified since they employ water saving GRO membrane technology.

    GRO Membrane


    7. Check Valve

    Check valve prevents pressurized filtered water in the storage tank from flowing back and rupturing the RO membrane when the ASO valve turns off the feed water pressure to the membrane. Our systems employ a check valve on the permeate (filtered water) line immediately after the membrane.

    RO Fittings


    8. Post Carbon Filter

    A granular activated carbon polishing filter removes any remaining tastes and odors in water. Since water flows very slowly through ths filter, the "contact time" is higher and this leads to higher adsorption effectiveness.

    Post carbon filter

    9. Pressurized Water Storage Tank

    The pressure tank in a RO system stores filtered water from the membrane permeate and provides water under pressure when the drinking water faucet is turned on. A bladder within a metal or plastic case separates a water chamber from compressed air. When the tank fills up with RO water, the bladder expands and further compresses the air inside the casing. Opening the faucet causes the air under pressure to push the water out. Residential under sink RO water storage tanks typically has an empty tank air charge of 5-7 PSI. Increasing the air charge will reduce the volume of stored water. Lower empty tank air pressure in the tank will result in lower flow rate from the drinking water faucet.

    Water Storage Tank

    10. Optional RO Components
    Optional Reverse Osmosis components include pressure booster pumps, pH balancing post filters, TDS water quality monitors, UV disinfection systems, bacteriostatic KDF post filters and more....
    Optional RO Components


    References:

    1. Peck, S. (n.d.). REMOVING CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINES FROM MUNICIPAL TAP WATER. AXEON Water Technologies. Retrieved from http://www.axeonwater.com
    2. Reverse Osmosis System Components. (n.d.). ANAN Knowledge Base Administration. Retrieved from https://wqa.org.
    3. UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA–LINCOLN. (n.d.). Understanding Your Pressure Storage Tank. Retrieved from https://communityenvironment.unl.edu

    Read more »
  12. Whole House Water Filtration: Cartridge or Backwash Tank Systems?

    Cartridge filter or backwash whole house filter

    What types of whole house water filtration systems are out there?

    Whole house water filters can be either cartridge based or tank based. They each feature different components that perform unique functions. Tank based filters also go by 'backwash' or 'self-clean' filters since they clean and reuse the filter media by pumping water backwards through the filter bed and flushing trapped contaminants down a drain.

    Cartridge based filters are much cheaper upfront, easier to install and does not require much space. They do not require a drain connection and can even operate at low house water pressures. However, the filter cartridges may need frequent replacement depending on your water quality and water use. Unfortunately, cartridge based filters can severely restrict the water flow and pressure.

    Canister Type Water Filter Systems

    Canister Type Water Filters

    Next up from the canister filter systems are cartridge tank systems. Cartridge tanks are a direct replacement for small and inefficient 2½” or 4½” housings, or expensive Stainless Steel cartridge housings, and offers extended service and life, and a more cost effective and efficient filtration solution. WECO filters stocks Enpress cartridge tank systems that can be used with many types of filtration medium depending on your application to remove particulate matter, organics, chlorine, chloramine, TDS, fluoride, chromium VI, nitrate, or other contaminants.

    Cartridge Tank Water Filter Systems

    Cartridge Tank Based Water Filters

    Tank based filters are less restrictive of the water flow. We try to recommend these systems whenever we can, because of the excellent water flow, longer media life and enhanced contaminant reduction performance. However, tank based systems require more space, electricity to operate the control valve and connection to a drain pipe. We recommend hiring a plumber to do the installation. Please note that a minimum of 20 psi (1.4 bar) of water pressure is required for the backwash/regeneration valve to operate effectively. You must have an air gap on the drain line to prevent back flow of drain water into the system. A 2x the drain line pipe diameter air gap is required with a minimum 1" air gap.

    Backwash Type Water Filters

    Backwash Water Filters


    What will this filter?

    Cartridge filters like our Big Blue or DP-Big can be retrofitted with sediment, carbon or multimedia cartridges. A sediment filter removes sand, grit, precipitated mineral particles, insoluble iron oxide and other debris. Carbon filters eliminate taste and odor problems caused by chlorine and chlorine dioxide water treatment chemicals. Multi media filter cartridges can be used to treat a variety of water problems like fluoride, arsenic, scale, corrosion control, nitrate, lead, organics and more.

    Backwash tank based systems can use either a single medium or multiple media based on what it is engineered to filter. Our CCMG seld-cleaning filters contain a bed of high active catalytic catalytic carbon and a media guard filled with KDF process media. Cat carbon reduced chlorine, chloramine and organic contaminants in water while the KDF redox media removes water-soluble cations (positively-charged ions) of lead, mercury, copper, nickel, chromium, and other dissolved metals. NextSand filters reduce sediment and turbidity in water ; Katalox light filters reduce iron, manganese and hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell) in water ; NTO filters with nano titanium oxide reduces arsenic and heavy metals in water.


    What service flow velocities are possible?

    Please vist the equipment web page for a service flow and backwash flow chart or contact a WECO support professional.


    Where should a whole house filter be installed?

    Cartridge filters should be installed after the pump or water meter.

    For backwash filters, make sure the installation location meets following requirements.

    1. Water pressure and flow rate are sufficient to support backwash.
    2. There is an adequate drain for maximum total volume produced during the regeneration cycle and can be used with an air gap device per local plumbing codes.
    3. There is an electrical outlet to connect the control head transformer.
    4. Adequate space for installation.

    Backwash Filter Plumbing Diagram


    Does the cartridge filter or filter media ever have to be changed?

    Filter Gets Clogged

    Cartridge change interval will depend on your water quality and water use. However, in our experience, even a sediment cartridge filter needs to be changed at least every 6 months.

    Backwash filter media generally last much longer than cartridge filters. However, life of the media will again depend on the type of media used, your water quality, what you are trying to filter and finally your water usage. NEXT sand media is advertised to last 5 year or longer. Katalox light recommended media life is 7-10 years. Catalytic carbon filters typically need media changed every 4-6 years. 


    How can I disinfect a backwash filter?

    The materials of construction of the modern water filter will not support bacterial growth, nor will these materials contaminate a water supply. During normal use, a backwash filtermay become fouled with organic matter, or in some cases with bacteria from the water supply. This may result in an off-taste or odor in the water. Some filters may need to be disinfected after installation and some filters will require periodic disinfection during their normal life. Depending upon the conditions of use, the style of filter, the type of ion exchanger, and the disinfectant available, a choice can be made among the following methods.

    Sodium or Calcium Hypochlorite

    These materials are satisfactory for use with polystyrene resins, synthetic gel zeolite, greensand and bentonites. 

    5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite
    These solutions are available under trade names such as Clorox*. If stronger solutions are used, such as those sold for commercial laundries, adjust the dosage accordingly.
    1. Dosage
         A. Polystyrene resin; 1.2 fluid ounce (35.5 ml) per cubic foot.
         B. Non-resinous exchangers; 0.8 fluid ounce (23.7 ml) per
    cubic foot. 
    2. Salt tank softeners
         A. Backwash the softener and add the required amount of hypochlorite solution to the well of the salt tank. The salt tank should have water in it to permit the solution to be carried into the softener.
         B. Proceed with the normal recharge.
    *Clorox is a trademark of the Clorox Company.

    Calcium Hypochlorite


    Calcium hypochlorite, 70% available chlorine, is available in several forms including tablets and granules. These solid materials may be used directly without dissolving before use.
    1. Dosage
         A. Two grains (approximately 0.1 ounce [3 ml]) per cubic foot.
    2. Salt tank softeners
         A. Backwash the softener and add the required amount of hypochlorite to the well of the salt tank. The salt tank should have water in it to permit the chlorine solution to be carried into the softener.
         B. Proceed with the normal recharge.


    References:

    1. Fleck 5810 XTR2 Control Valve Service Manual
    2. “Troubleshooting Problems with POE Backwashing Tank Filtration Systems.” Water Quality Association, Knowledge Base Administration, www.wqa.org

    Read more »
  13. Carbon Basics

      Carbon Basics

    • Granular activated carbon is commonly used for reducing organics and residual disinfectants from water supplies. This im-proves taste and protects water treatment components such as reverse osmosis membranes and ion exchange resins from possible damage due to oxidation or organic fouling. Typical surface area for activated carbon is approximately 1,000 square meters per gram (m2/gm). However, different raw materials produce different types of activated carbon varying in hardness, density, pore and particle sizes, surface areas, extractables, ash and pH. These differences in properties make certain car-bons preferable over others in different applications. The two principal mechanisms by which activated carbon removes con-taminants from water are adsorption and catalytic reduction. Organics are removed by adsorption and residual disinfectants are removed by catalytic reduction. While more expensive, catalytic carbon is far superior for the reduction of chloramines and other contaminants. Catalytic carbon can generally be used in lieu of non catalytic carbon.


    • Carbon Basics for Water Filtration

      Important Carbon Considerations

    • pH : Organics are less soluble and more readily adsorbed at a lower pH. As the pH increases, removal decreases. A rule of thumb is to increase the size of the carbon bed by twenty percent for every pH unit above neutral (7.0).

    • Particle Size : Activated carbon is commonly available in 8 by 30 mesh (largest), 12 by 40 mesh (most common), and 20 by 50 mesh (finest). The finer mesh gives the best contact and better removal, but at the expense of higher pressure drop.

    • Flow Rate : The lower the flow rate, the more time the contaminant will have to diffuse into a pore and be adsorbed. A 20 by 50 mesh carbon can be run at twice the flow rate of a 12 by 40 mesh, and a 12 by 40 mesh can be run at twice the flow rate of an 8 by 30 mesh. When considering higher flow rates with finer mesh 20x50 carbons, maintain a peak flow of <10 GPM ft2 (5GPM peak for a 10”x54”) to mitigate pressure drop issues. Higher water temperatures decrease the solution viscosity and can in-crease the dye diffusion rate, thereby increasing adsorption. Higher temperatures can also disrupt the adsorptive bond and slightly decrease adsorption. It depends on the organic compound being removed, but generally, lower temperatures seem to favor adsorption.

    • pH : Organics are less soluble and more readily adsorbed at a lower pH. As the pH increases, removal decreases. A rule of thumb is to increase the size of the carbon bed by twenty percent for every pH unit above neutral (7.0).



    • Source: Product Catalog, Impact Water Products. Ontario, California
    Read more »
  14. Common Water Contaminants & Remedies

    Common Water Ailments & Remedies

    ContaminantMCL/Action LevelCommon Sources/NotesConventional Treatment Method(s)
    Alkalinity 400 mg/L Naturally Occurring/Subsequent to Treatment Reverse Osmosis, Anion Exchange
    Aluminum 0.05 to 0.2 mg/L Natural deposits Distillation, Reverse Osmosis, PE Cation
    Ammonia Highly Variable Natural/Industrial Waste/Disinfection with Chloramines Distillation, Ion Exchange with Clinoptilolite, Specifically Designed Redundant Series Softening
    Antimony 6 ug/L Natural/Industrial Waste Coagulation, Reverse Osmosis
    Arsenic 10 ug/L Natural deposits, smelters, glass, electronics wastes, orchards Reverse Osmosis, NTO, Anion Exchange, Activated Alumina, Manganese Greensand
    Barium 2 mg/L Natural deposits, pigments, epoxy sealants, spent coal circulatory system effects Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Cation Exchange Softening
    Boron 1 mg/L Natural/Boiler Blowdown Pollutant Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Selective Anion Exchange, Deionization
    Cadmium 0.005 mg/L Natural deposits, galvanized pipe corrosion, batteries, paints Reverse Osmosis, Distillation, Submicron Filtration
    Chloramines (as Cl2) 1-4 mg/L Municipal Disinfection (Total Free) Water additive used to control microbes, Catalytic GAC, Fine Mesh GAC, KDF-85, Clinoptilolite for Residual Ammonia Adsorption
    Chloride 250 mg/L Naturally occurring Reverse Osmosis
    Chlorine 1-4 mg/L Water disinfection (Test as Free Chlorine) Activated Carbon, KDF
    Chromium-6 0.1 mg/L Natural deposits, mining, electroplating, pigments Reverse Osmosis, Anion Exchange
    Coliform Zero Indicated Contamination by Animal Wastes and Possible Pathogens Redundant Monitored Disinfection. Chlorination, Contact Time, Absolute Filtration, UV
    CO2 N/A Naturally Occurring/ levels above 50 ppm may need treatment Aeration, Soda Ash or Caustic Soda Injection, Calcium Carbonate and/or magensium oxide filtration
    Color 15 Color Units Multiple Reverse Osmosis, pilot testing, Bone Char, Coagulation, Anion Exchange, Ultrafiltration
    Copper 1.3 mg/L Natural / industrial deposits, wood preservatives, plumbing corrosion Reverse Osmosis, Polyphosphates, Ion Exchange Softening
    Cryptosporidium Zero Animal or human waste, contaminated food products Reverse Osmosis, UV, 1 Micron Absolute Filtration
    E.coli (Escherichia coli) Zero Naturally occurring, human or animal wastes Ultraviolet, Redundant Monitored Disinfection. Chlorination, Contact Time, Filtration, UV
    Fluoride 2 mg/L Natural deposits, fertilizer, aluminum industries, water additive Reverse Osmosis, Bone Char, Activated Alumina
    Giardia Zero Naturally occurring, human or animal wastes Reverse Osmosis, Carbon Block (0.5 micron), UV, 1 Micron Absolute Filtration
    Hardness ≈3 GPG Naturally Deposits Ion Exchange Softening and Various Alternates.
    Heavy Metals Varies Naturally occurring, manufacturing byproduct KDF, Titanium Oxide, RO, Distillation
    Hydrogen Sulfide N/A .05 mg/L Natural Rotten egg taste and odor Iron Reduction Filter, KDF 85, Catalytic GAC, Oxidation or Aeration Followed by Filtration, Replace Magnesium Water Heater Anode with Aluminum or Zinc.
    Iron 0.3 mg/L Natural deposits Iron Reduction Filter Oxidation or Aeration, Followed by Physical Filtration, Ion Exchange, Special Media (e.g. FerriLite) Filtration.
    Langelier Index >0.0 Natural and Human Impact Used to predict corrosivity of water. -2 to 0.0= Moderately Aggressive,
    Lead 0-15 ug/L Pollution, corrosion Micro-D, Reverse Osmosis, DI, Special Design Ion Exchange Softener, Special Design GAC Cartridge., KDF.
    Log Reduction N/A N/A Logarithim or Exponent of 10. 1 Log = 90%. 2 Log = 99%. 3 Log = 99.9%...
    Magnesium N/A Natural deposits See Hardness
    Manganese 0.05 mg/L Natural deposits Iron Reduction Filter Oxidation or Aeration, Followed by Physical Filtration, Ion Exchange, Special Media (e.g. FerriLite) Filtration.
    Mercury 0.002 mg/L Crop runoff, natural deposits, batteries, electrical switches Reverse Osmosis, Activated Carbon
    Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether (MTBE) 20-40 ug/L Leaking underground gasoline storage tanks. High Capacity GAC, Air Stripping above ≈100 ug/L.
    Nitrate 10 mg/L Animal waste, fertilizer, natural deposits, septic tanks, sewage Reverse Osmosis, Ion Exchange
    Nitrite 1 mg/L Animal waste, fertilizer, natural deposits, septic tanks, sewage Reverse Osmosis, Ion Exchange
    Perchlorate ≈4 ug/L Industrial Wastes Reverse Osmosis, Anion Exchange
    pH ≈8.5 Natural and Human Causes Low pH: Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium Oxide, Soda Ash. High pH: Acidify e.g. White Vinegar.
    Radium 5 pCi/L Natural deposits Reverse Osmosis, Special Designed Ion Exchange Softening
    Radon 3000 pCi/L Natural deposits Aeration/Venting, Activated Carbon
    SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio) <3.0 acceptable for most irrigation. Measure of the suitability of water for agricultural irrigation as determined by the solids dissolved in water. High sodium levels in water can replace calcium and magnesium in the soil causing poor infiltration of water and air. The use of water with a SAR above 3.0 for irrigation needs to be carefully considered or soil/crop damage may result.
    Selenium 0.05 mg/L Natural deposits, mining, smelting, coal/oil combustion Reverse Osmosis
    Silica N/A Natural deposits Reverse Osmosis in conjunction with deionization to remove up to 90%, low levels can mimic hardness.
    Silt Density Index (SDI) ≈4 at 15 Minutes Suspended Matter, used primarily to predict membrane fouling potential Physical filtration, coagulant, settling tank. No correlation to NTU.
    Sodium N/A Natural and Human Causes Reverse Osmosis
    Sulfate 250 mg/L Naturally-occurring Reverse Osmosis, ion exchange
    Tannin ≈50 APHA Units Naturally-occurring Anion Exchange, Bone Char, Chlorination, Reverse Osmosis
    Total Dissolved Solids 500 mg/L Erosion of naturally occurring mineral deposits Reverse Osmosis
    Trihalomethanes (THMs) 0.08 mg/L By-product of chlorination in drinking water Activated Carbon, KDF
    Turbidity N/A (1 NTU max. recommended) Soil runoff, Natural Whole-House Sediment Filter, Reverse Osmosis, Coagulant
    Uranium 0.03 mg/L Natural occurring Reverse Osmosis, Anion exchange
    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Varies Industrial Wastes Activated Carbon, Aeration

    *Data herein is provided as a courtesy and is subject to change without notice by IWP.

    References:

    ❐ Impact Water Products. Ontario, California, U.S.A.

    Read more »
  15. Custom Blend Media Filter Cartridges

      Contact WECO for Your Custom Blend Water Filter Cartridges

    • Available in a nearly limitless number of configurations, contact WECO to discuss your custom blend. Filters come standard in clear color. Quantity discounts available. Filters are individually labeled and boxed or without box and/or label upon request. 


    • An extended capacity option is available in white as standard or translu-cent for the 2½” x 9¾” sizes. Filters are individually labeled and boxed or without box and/or label upon request.


    • *Filtration media will react to the influent water chemistry and other factors. Effluent conditions (e.g. pH, hardness, TDS, aggressivity, odor and taste) may be impacted. Recommended peak flow rate and capacities are theoretical estimates only. Actual service flow rates may be significantly lower than the peak flow rate. Your results may vary significantly. Please see media specifications or contact WECO Filters with questions.


    • Custom labeling available.

    Specialty Filter Cartridges ( 2½ " x 9¾" )

    Model Media ≈Peak GPM Capacity (gallons) Primary Functions
    DI-1025 Color Changing DI Media 1.0 ≈1300 Gallons @ 5 ppm Deionization
    SOFT-1025 Cation Softening Resin 1.0 ≈100 Gallons @ 10 GPG Hardness
    NT-1025 Nitrate Selective Anion Resin 0.25 ≈250 Gallons @ 20 mg/L Nitrate
    TN-1025 Tannin Selective Anion Resin 0.25 ≈250 Gallons @ 20 mg/L Tannin
    CAT-1025 Catalytic GAC 20x50 0.50 ≈1,000 Gallons Chloramines
    GAC-CALC-1025 GAC/Calcium Carbonate 0.50 ≈1,500 Gallons Chlorine/Neutralization
    GAC-MOX-1025 GAC/Calcium Carbonate 0.50 ≈1,500 Gallons Chlorine/Neutralization
    KDF-GAC-1025 ¼ lb. KDF-55/GAC 0.50 ≈3,000 Gallons Chlorine/Taste/Odor
    Read more »
  16. Backwash/Whole House Filter Questions & Answers

    How often should filters be backwashed?

    As filtration proceeds, the void areas in the medium become filled with particles removed from the water, resulting in pressure drop from the outlet. Flow rates through the filter medium decreases until it becomes insufficient to meet the demand. A partially clogged filter bed also results in deteriorated water quality. At WECO we prefer backwashing done at least every 4-7 days at 10 gpm/sq.ft and the whole house systems are pre-programed for the self-cleaning cycle to occur at 2.00 AM.

    One way to make the when-to-backwash decision is to install pressure gauges before and after the filter. Backwashing should be performed when the pressure drop reaches a pre-determined maximum value (typically 15 PSI for whole house systems). Backwash the system on demand by pressing the Regeneration button on the home screen. Manual Regeneration can only be used while the valve is in the treatment position. 

    Please note that a minimum of 20 psi (1.4 bar) of water pressure is required for the backwash/regeneration valve to operate effectively. You must have an air gap on the drain line to prevent back flow of drain water into the system. A 2x the drain line pipe diameter air gap is required with a minimum 1" air gap.


    How often should softeners be regenerated?

    Once you test and enter the hardness level of water in your UXC softener control panel, the automated control valve decides when to regenerate based on the amount of water passed through the softener. Our softeners are programmed to 'Softener Delayed' regeneration type. This means that your softener measures water usage and regenerates the system at the selected Regeneration Time after the calculated system capacity is depleted. The control calculates the system capacity by dividing the unit capacity by the feed water hardness and subtracting the reserve.

    The reserve should be set to ensure that the system delivers treated water between the time the system capacity is depleted and the actual regeneration time. Reserves can be set at a Fixed Volume, Fixed Percentage of capacity, a Variable Reserve based on the previous calendar day's water usage, or a Weekly Reserve based on the average water usage for the current day of the week. The default for the day override parameter is OFF, and the default reserve type is Weekly Reserve. A Softener Delayed control will also start a regeneration cycle at the selected Regeneration Time (2:00 AM default for softeners, 12:00 AM default for filters) if a number of days equal to the Day Override pass before water usage depletes the calculated system capacity. If the regen type is changed from Softener Immediate to Softener Delayed (or vice-versa), all parameters within those types will be reset to factory default.



    What service flow velocities are possible?

    Please vist the equipment web page for a service flow and backwash flow chart or contact a WECO support professional.


    Where should a softener/backwash filter installed?

    Make sure the installation location meets following requirements.

    1. Water pressure and flow rate are sufficient to support backwash/regeneration.
    2. There is an adequate drain for maximum total volume produced during the regeneration cycle and can be used with an air gap device per local plumbing codes.
    3. There is an electrical outlet to connect the control head transformer.
    4. Adequate space for installation.

    Backwash Filter Plumbing Diagram


    Does the filter media/resin in filters ever have to be changed?

    Media life will depend on the type of media used in your backwash filter. NEXT sand is advertised to last 5 year or longer. Katalox light recommended media life is 7-10 years. Catalytic carbon filters typically need media changed every 4-6 years. A water softener resin bed normally lasts 5 to 10 years.


    How can I disinfect the filter/softener?

    The materials of construction of the modern water softener will not support bacterial growth, nor will these materials contaminate a water supply. During normal use, a softener may become fouled with organic matter, or in some cases with bacteria from the water supply. This may result in an off-taste or odor in the water. Some softeners may need to be disinfected after installation and some softeners will require periodic disinfection during their normal life. Depending upon the conditions of use, the style of softener, the type of ion exchanger, and the disinfectant available, a choice can be made among the following methods.

    Sodium or Calcium Hypochlorite

    These materials are satisfactory for use with polystyrene resins, synthetic gel zeolite, greensand and bentonites. 

    5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite
    These solutions are available under trade names such as Clorox*. If stronger solutions are used, such as those sold for commercial laundries, adjust the dosage accordingly.
    1. Dosage
         A. Polystyrene resin; 1.2 fluid ounce (35.5 ml) per cubic foot.
         B. Non-resinous exchangers; 0.8 fluid ounce (23.7 ml) per
    cubic foot. 
    2. Salt tank softeners
         A. Backwash the softener and add the required amount of hypochlorite solution to the well of the salt tank. The salt tank should have water in it to permit the solution to be carried into the softener.
         B. Proceed with the normal recharge.
    *Clorox is a trademark of the Clorox Company.

    Calcium Hypochlorite


    Calcium hypochlorite, 70% available chlorine, is available in several forms including tablets and granules. These solid materials may be used directly without dissolving before use.
    1. Dosage
         A. Two grains (approximately 0.1 ounce [3 ml]) per cubic foot.
    2. Salt tank softeners
         A. Backwash the softener and add the required amount of hypochlorite to the well of the salt tank. The salt tank should have water in it to permit the chlorine solution to be carried into the softener.
         B. Proceed with the normal recharge.


    References:

    1. Fleck 5810 XTR2 Control Valve Service Manual
    2. “Troubleshooting Problems with POE Backwashing Tank Filtration Systems.” Water Quality Association, Knowledge Base Administration, www.wqa.org

    Read more »
  17. Why to speak with a water treatment specialist and how to determine what water treatment equipment is best for you

    Why do I need a water treatment specialist? Wont some equipment from the store work just fine?

    When it comes to water treatment there is no turnkey solution that works for all water sources. The water that is supplied changes throughout the planet while also changing with the seasons. So there may be a setup in New York that works really well on their water source but it might not work well in California. Each water treatment system needs to be adjusted for based on the water that will be processed within the system. So if we want to find the perfect equipment to process our water we need to find a way to figure out what’s in the water. This is where a water sample should be obtained and sent in for analysis.

    City Water vs Well Water?

    A water analysis is important so a water treatment professional can assist you in what you need to do to treat your water. When it comes to your water sources, the two most common are well water and city water. When people are not in largely populated areas with no good way of getting city water, they usually have to use well water from their land. Well water is more cost effective as it is being obtained from land the customer owns. However, since water is a universal solvent it will obtain particles and compounds it comes into contact with. So as you can imagine, when you have a large well underground it will dissolve minerals, salts, and many other materials in the ground. Depending on where you live the composition of what’s in your well water depends on the ground beneath your feet. It also depends on what else can get into the water from nearby areas. We have all heard stories of ground water and well water being tarnished by chemicals from nearby businesses. So it is good to ensure your water is safe for consumption. This can be done by obtaining a water sample and sending it to your water treatment professional. He can tell you what you need to get the best water for your home or business.

    Now well water might be different as its coming from the land and has no way of ensuring consistency. But city water that customers pay for has to comply with EPA standards. If they do not ensure the water they are providing is safe and complies to EPA standards, then the city would face costly lawsuits from customers they have affected. If you are ever curious about what is within your city water, the city is required to keep records of tested samples on a regular basis and make them publicly available to their customers. So as you can imagine to avoid those lawsuits they build large industrial water treatment plants to treat the water for their customers. Then they use large pumping stations to pressurize the water to get it out to the customers pipelines.

    Will my water change and should I get it tested multiple times?

    So depending on whether you use well water or city water you will face different obstacles. With city water, you are at the mercy of what the city provides to your pipes as to the water you get. The city most often obtains water from surface water sources. This provides different challenges as the water composition will change throughout the year as the weather changes. Well water however, being deep underground, will not change as easily with the weather as it goes unaffected by the changes at the surface. But well water will change as it obtains more from its surroundings or anything that may get into the water from contamination. So this begs the questions how often should we test our water to ensure we are treating it properly? For city water, since it will change with the weather it is best to at least test it 3-4 times a year. Then for well water it would be good to test it 1-2 times a year to ensure nothing has tarnished it or change it in some way.

    Why should I get a lab test when I can get a field test?

    When it comes to testing there is very precise laboratory tests and then there are somewhat precise field tests. The laboratory tests can be done to determine the exact ppm of all the elements and compounds in the water. This is the preferred test when determining the proper equipment to treat the water, but sometimes when there is something that has changed and is affecting your water a lot very suddenly then field tests are good to determine what can be altered to ensure optimum water quality. These are usually small titration kits where a certain amount of water needs to be measured out and then the titration packets need to be added to determine how much of the measured compound is in the water. Some examples of field test kits are kits that test for free chlorine, total chlorine, and total hardness.

    To properly obtain a sample, a sample bottle (which the water treatment company can provide) will need to be used. These bottles keep from contaminating the samples to get the most accurate depiction possible. Then it is best to run water through you sample point for at least 1-2 minutes to ensure it is properly rinsed and will accurately present what’s in your water. The sample bottle needs to be filled to the rim and then sealed. The bottle then need to be sent to your water treatment professional so they can have laboratory tests done.

    Once the tests have been done, the lab will break down the results and provide a document that tells you exactly what’s in the water. These results can then be used to determine what you would need to process your water properly and ensure you always have good water in your house or business. An example of the document you will be provided from the lab would be like the one provided in figure 1.

    water analysis

    Figure 1: Example of the first page of a laboratory water sample test. Gives a breakdown of the ppm value for many elements and compounds.

    Entire water treatment process or point of use treatment?

    Now when it comes to how to treat your water, you can treat the entire house or just one point of use. An example of this are the refrigerators most of us use today. Many fridges today come with water lines to get cold water from the fridge but they also come with filters on them to slightly treat the water before it gets into your cup. We can apply that same theory across your house. The entire house can have treated water with larger equipment or smaller equipment can be used to treat certain points of use. So it is best to determine with your water treatment specialist if you would like to treat all of the water or if there are specific points of use you need the water treated. You can also apply this mentality to the amount of water treatment. If a activated carbon filter is needed or if one of the points of use need to go through many different pieces of equipment to ensure itgets treated more heavily. It isn’t al all or nothing thing. Different points of use can use more of less treatment based on your needs.

    With all this information it is best to consult a water treatment specialist?

    Now that we know we have different water sources, that can change throughout the year, the different tests that can be used and how much we can treat our water. How are we to determine what needs to be done? Well as you can imagine it would be hard to use all of this information to put together a solution to treat our water. It is much better to consult your water treatment specialist to determine what equipment you need to ensure you get the best water possible. They can help you throughout the entire process to be sure you are taken care of and that you have the best water for your family or business.

     

    Read more »
  18. Silica Treatment in Residential Applications

    Resedential Silica Treatment

    This article is going to explore silica in water and how to treat the water for silica removal. Silicon dioxide is one of the most abundant compounds on earth and having such a high amount of it makes for no surprise that nearly all water contains colloidal and dissolved silica in solution unless it is treated. Silica is a glassy mineral substance that comes in a variety of forms. It is problematic because of its tendency to form deposits and scale. There are studies done by quite a few sources as to the effect of silica exposure for long periods of time but that is for another topic. Essentially, we want to remove the silica that occurs in our water for the multitude of uses we have for that treated water. Most sources contain 5-25 ppm of silica in solution with some areas, usually well water, that have as high as 100 ppm of silica or higher. So how can we help you understand silica and how to remove it? Below we will discuss silica and the water treatment methods that we need to use to remove the silica for our use.

    Before we speak to how to remove silica from our water we should discuss how it appears in our water. The first method is dissolved silica. From contact of the earths water with sand, quartz, granite and other earthly methods, water dissolves silica and it remains in solution until removed. The second method is known as colloidal silica. Colloidal silica refers to the silica the doesn’t dissolve in solution and instead stays suspended within water. Unlike other heavy larger materials, silica will not settle to the bottom of the container to be removed. Even given an infinite amount of time, this colloidal silica will stay suspended in the water without ever settling out. To remove these, we will need to use reverse osmosis (here forth referred to as RO) and strong base anion ion exchange resins (hereforth referred to as SBA).

    As a recap to other articles, RO is the process of applying energy in the form of pressure to reverse waters tendency in nature to balance dissolved particles across a semi permeable membrane. This tendency moves water from areas of different concentrations to balance them. To reverse this process, we apply pressure to the highly concentrated side to “push” the water across the membrane to produce clean water and leave behind the unfavored materials we want to remove. Silica is one of the materials that is removed by an RO unit. The percentage removal of silica by an RO unit depends on some conditions. One of the largest conditions is the pH of the water. Silica has better removal when the pH of the feed water is high. One disadvantage of having high pH feed water is the fact that the calcium and magnesium that is dissolved in water will react with carbonate to create a crystalline substance known as scale that will plug the membranes. This scale will cost a lot of money to clean off the membranes to continue to produce clean water. To prevent this, we need to inject antiscalant to prevent scale from forming and plugging up our membranes, so we can ensure a longer production life of the membranes. Using an RO at high pHs we will see a removal of silica by up to 95%. But to get that small amount that passes through the RO unit we need to use other methods of removal.

    The next method to remove silica from water would be through ion exchange resins specifically strong base anion exchange resins. At WECO Filters, we use Purolite A400E resin to treat silica in water. SBAs like the A400E remove all anionic contaminants present. One such contaminant is the silica in solution that will be acting as a weak acid after the RO. The beads will release hydroxide to the water and bond strongly to the silica in solution. There is only so much the resin can bond to the silica before it has no more than it can remove because the resin has been exhausted. When this happen we need to regenerate the resin with caustic soda so that we give such a high concentration of hydroide we can force the reaction of the resin to bond to silica but in reverse. This will remove the silica concentrations down to the ppb level and leave the water with very few contaminants and properly treat the water to the point we would all the like the water to be for our residential use.

    By providing an RO unit with antiscalant injection and a strong base anion ion exchange resin, the water will be treated to remove almost all the silica in the water to avoid the troubles of silica deposits and scale that can be problematic to residential uses.

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  19. Is Whole House Reverse Osmosis Right for You?

    The article will aim to help assist you in the understanding of determining the water processing equipment you may need while also providing clarification on some of the small details within determining the correct equipment and chemicals to use within your house or place of business.

    Whole House RO

    To first begin we can discuss why water processing is so important. I don’t have to tell you the importance of water as it is used from everything from drinking water or consumable products, to use within energy systems, boilers and many other applications. The one trouble however that water poses is that it is a universal solvent. It has the ability to dissolve many different chemicals or substances. Now depending on the substance, it may dissolve more or less but most things dissolve in water to some extent unless hydrophobic in nature. This poses a problem because there are many things we don’t want in water if we are to use it. Most everyone would not like to see slime or dirty water coming out of their faucet when they fill a cup to drink. But sometimes it’s the things we cannot see or know in water that are also dangerous. But for consideration of water processing units at a residential level it’s good to consider the different types of inlet water sources.

    The most common inlet water source to most people is city water. The water you get that is processed by the city for our use. They do some amount of processing but sometimes it’s not to the levels we would prefer. They tend to get big suspended solids out of solution using flocculation, a method of binding big undissolved solids basically into a large ball then letting gravity drag that ball of material to the bottom of a separation tank for removal while the better water flows further into the system. City water processing is something similar to figure 1 below.

    Suspended Solid Removal

    Figure 1: Large reservoirs for the purpose of removing large suspended solids.

    However, the city doesn’t go to lengths to remove everything. They always have certain ppm regulated limits of substances and chemicals that if they stay under they can provide that water without getting fined. So let’s discuss what we as a consumer can do to help in our own way to provide water processing so we always have good water to use for ourselves that isn’t dependent on the city.

    So, when considering what is needed within our system to process water it’s good to know what is in the water that isn’t preferred. To do this it is good to take a sample of water in a clean bottle and send it out for analysis. They are usually a few labs in every state that can do a water analysis and provide you a breakdown of everything in your water. But we are concerned about a few key attributes. Because at the heart of a good water processing system is usually a reverse osmosis unit which we will call an RO for the rest of the article. It does the brunt of the work and needs the proper pretreatment to keep it in good working condition.

    One major material we are concerned with is hardness. If you are like me, I am in an area that has very high hardness in the water. This means the water has lots of calcium and magnesium in the water. You can usually see hardness scale on your glass shower doors because as you take a shower and the water that splashed on the door is dried it leaves behind the dissolved material in the water and the usually culprit is calcium and magnesium. These substances cause trouble because another common material in water is carbonate. When you combine these materials to make things like calcium carbonate, it can scale your RO and require further expensive maintenance to continue processing your water. Scale is essentially any substance that can precipitate out of the water to form an undissolved substance that will essentially clog your RO. A picture of calcium carbonate is below in figure 2.

    Scaled RO Membrane

    Figure 2: Scaled industrial RO membrane

    As you can see the membrane has lots of material that precipitated out of solution and has deposited that material all over the membrane. The water has to flow in those small spaces between the rolled-up membrane to be able to process the water. When it gets all clogged up you can imagine how much harder it will be to process that water.

    So, to avoid this headache of scaling your membranes because of the hardness in your water. If you do live in an area with high hardness it is good to get a water softener. A water softener is a vessel with resin that is aimed at removing positively charged ions like calcium and magnesium and holding them on the resin bead. In exchange the softener resin discharges sodium in its placed which cant scale a membrane. But as you can imagine there’s only so many ions of calcium and magnesium the resin can take before its overloaded. So, we do have to regenerate the resin when it gets all used up. We do this by providing it a high concentration of brine (salt water) to replace the resin that has remove calcium and magnesium for sodium again. The whole process of water softener is to trade sodium for calcium and magnesium, regenerate the resin to put sodium back onto the beads and then do that process all over again. By doing this water softening we are getting rid of the chance for the membrane to get clogged with scale and require cleaning the membrane or replacement of the membrane.

    Some cities however don’t allow discharge of highly concentrated brine.  So, if you need a softener but the city permits you from doing so we have another option. This option is a chemical known as antiscalant. It is a substance that when dissolved in solution at the proper PPM that it will not allow the scale to form while you process the water. This assists in processing the water while not scaling the RO unit and not discharging highly concentrated brine to the city water system and getting fined in the process. There is some water processing software out there but to avoid the headache of doing the software simulation, it is best that if this option is needed to work with your chemical provider of the antiscalant for the proper dosage rate.

    Another form of pretreatment to an RO is known as an activated carbon filter. This activated carbon resin is essentially a carbon rich material that was treated with very high temperature steam. When doing so it made the substance very porous. This porous resin can trap substances in those small holes made in the resin. This assists in many efforts such a removal of total organic carbons (TOCs) like urea, chloramines, chlorine, silica and many others. But for the purpose of pretreatment, the most pronounced removal that is favored is the removal of chlorine. Chlorine is unfavorable for ROs because it can react with the membrane to essentially punch holes in the membrane. As you can imagine when you punch holes in something it won’t remove everything it needs to and will let unfavorable substances through the membrane. But this is also a trouble because chlorine is used as a biocide. It helps avoid any biological growth in the water that could make the water unusable for residential use. But since most residencies use their water daily and many times per hour. The water won’t be sitting long enough to grow any biologicals so usually it isn’t too big of a trouble to remove the chlorine since water will always be running in your house.

    Lastly, we will cover the bread and butter of a water processing system, the reverse osmosis system. To cover reverse osmosis, it would first be good to understand what osmosis is. If we refer to Figure 3 below we can explain this picture and understand the processes of osmosis and reverse osmosis.

    Reverse Osmosis Process

    Figure 3: Illustrates a ubend of a pipe with the bottom of the ubend having a semi permeable membrane. The left picture is without a piston for pressure and the right has a piston to provide pressure.

    If we look at the above picture we can explain osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis is the nature of water to move across a semipermeable membrane (semipermeable meaning it only permeates a few substances but not all) in an effort to balance the number of dissolved solids in solution. Nature always moves towards balance and it can be seen here. However, since we want clean water we can do the reverse process. By applying pressure which is shown at the right part of the picture with a piston, we are able to apply energy to the system and push the water through the membrane to make clean water and discharge the dirty water. It is very important to remember RO does require that we discharge some water. We have to have water that will contain the dissolved solids, or the RO will have lots of scale on it just like your shower door. If we produce all the water to product and leave none as concentrate, all those materials that we wanted to get rid of will instead either be forced through the membrane and still end up in the water or it will eventually reach its saturation limits in water and start precipitating out of solution and scaling the RO. It is very important to discharge the small amount of water we need to so we can ensure our unit last a long time with little to no maintenance.

    Now that we understand that we can apply energy in the form of pressure and perform reverse osmosis to make clean water we can apply this on a bigger level. As you saw earlier the RO unit isn’t a u-bend. They make fully contained membranes that we saw in figure 2 that go into pressurized vessels and produce clean water. Instead of having a small part of a semi permeable membrane. We make big sheets of them and roll them up. Then water flows next to the membrane and due to the pressure, it permeates the membrane and flows around the rolled-up membrane to product and can be used when it comes out as product. A reverse osmosis unit rejects many types of materials that are unfavorable in water and is the best form of treating water for residential use. I can’t make a list of all the substances it rejects because it would make a list with as many words as I have already written but it will give good clean water for your use.

    To recap, we have covered that we can use a softener to remove calcium and magnesium to protect and RO from becoming scaled. If we are unable to use a softener that we can get the chemical called antiscalant and inject it into the water to stop from having high hardness water scale the RO. Remember the correct dosage rate can easily be determined by the chemical provider so let them help you by providing them with your water analysis. We also can use an activated carbon filter to remove the chlorine and other materials to protect the RO membranes. Then we can finally process the water with an RO to get very clean water out for our residential use. If you want to learn more about water processing read more articles provided for education on water processing. Below I have provided tables to size tanks for softeners and carbons filters.

    Softener Tank sizing chart for media and nominal flow:

    Softener Sizing Chart-WECO

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Activated Carbon Filter Tank Sizing Chart for media and nominal flow:

    Carbon Filter Sizing Chart-WECO

    To get a better picture of the filtration systems available for your water analysis, I encourage you to visit wecofilters.com and get in touch with a WQA certified water specialist. Consultation is free to all customers.

     

    Matt Peiris is a senior application engineer for WECO Filters. He can be reached at matt@wecofilters.com.

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  20. Is Nanofiltration Right for Your Industrial Application?

    According to a report published by the United Nations, clean water sources are under increasing pressure as global population increases. In turn, many industrial facilities are under pressure not only to treat the water they need to operate, but also to reduce overall water consumption. Nanofiltration can help industrial facilities filter water, soften water, and generate potable water while helping to save energy and valuable industrial space.

    In commercial settings, nanofiltration can remove:

    heavy metals—which in some cases can be demineralized and reused

      nitrates

        sulfates

          organic macromolecules

            radionuclides

              total dissolved solids

                Nanofiltration is a relatively new semipermeable membrane filtration system that was designed primarily for drinking water purification. It works on the principles of reverse osmosis, but it is different from the reverse osmosis systems used for seawater desalination and other water purification applications in that nanofiltration uses lower-rejection membranes. It exists in the gap between reverse osmosis on the higher-rejection side and ultrafiltration on the lower-rejection side. As the name suggests, nanofiltration membranes typically separate particles around one nanometer in diameter.

                Reverse osmosis and nanofiltration use similar technology—the opposite of osmosis. During osmosis, dissolved solvents move from an area of higher concentration through a semi-permeable membrane into an area of lower concentration. This happens spontaneously; the solutions on both sides of the membrane try to equalize their concentrations. In reverse osmosis, however, the particles dissolved in the water need to be removed. So, the water on one side of the semipermeable membrane must be forced across. Unlike microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis can deliver consistently filtered water without the use of coagulation, no matter what the quality of the feed.

                 

                A major benefit of using nanofiltration is energy savings. In contrast to reverse osmosis, the larger pores in nanofiltration membranes often require less pressure in the purification system. Pressures in reverse osmosis systems range from about 75 psi to as much as 1,200 psi. Nanofiltration systems, on the other hand, have typically lower pressure requirements of approximately 50 psi to 225 psi. In some cases, nanofiltration’s lower pressure requirements can save up to half the energy used for water filtration. Additionally, nanofiltration takes place at ambient temperatures, so it does not demand heating and cooling like distillation.

                 

                The larger membrane pores used in nanofiltration allow more salt into the permeate. In nanofiltration, sodium chloride rejection rates can be as low as 75-80% (and maybe even as low as 40%), while reverse osmosis systems generally reject at least 99.5% of sodium chloride. In many facilities, however, the lower salt rejection rate will be more than acceptable when coupled with nanofiltration’s lower energy use. In facilities where scaling is a concern, nanofiltration can be an attractive option because its membranes tend to retain calcium and magnesium ions, resulting in soft water. Even as salt rejection rates go down, nanofiltration systems often retain hardness rejection rates of 90% or more.

                 

                In addition to energy savings and water softening benefits, nanofiltration systems usually have a much smaller footprint than traditional, multistage separation options. The membranes used in nanofiltration systems often need to be hundreds or even thousands of square meters. For efficiency, they are packed in modules. Most often, nanofiltration systems use spiral wound modules, in which flat membranes are wound around a tube. Many standard nanofiltration systems accept 2.5-, 4-, and 8-inch diameter spiral wound modules. These membranes tend to require little maintenance, though they can be susceptible to buildup of material that can block, or foul, them. Fouling can usually be mitigated by additional filtering upstream, by adding coagulants, or chemical solutions designed to destroy biological contaminants which can flourish in the temperatures where nanofiltration often takes place.

                 

                Though nanofiltration has a number of benefits, it may not be the best option in zero liquid discharge situations. Like reverse osmosis, nanofiltration creates a fairly large volume of wastewater—which can be up to half of the feed volume. Some facilities may opt to use evaporations ponds or injection wells to avoid discharge.

                 

                Nanofiltration systems are versatile and cost-effective ways to deliver the water many industrial facilities need to operate. They are worth exploring when designing industrial water purification systems.

                 

                References

                 

                1. Pure Aqua, Inc., “Nanofiltration NF Systems,” https://www.pureaqua.com/nanofiltration-nf-systems/
                2. The Dow Chemical Company, “FILMTEC Membranes,” http://msdssearch.dow.com/PublishedLiteratureDOWCOM/dh_0042/0901b80380042dd2.pdf?filepath=liquidseps/pdfs/noreg/609-02002.pdf&fromPage=GetDoc
                3. AXEON Water Technologies, “AXEON Introduces Nanofiltration Water Systems for Industry Use,” https://www.axeonwater.com/blog/axeon-introduces-nanofiltration-water-systems/.
                4.  SAMCO Technologies, A Fundamental Guide to Industrial Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Systems. https://www.samcotech.com/.
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              • Polaris Scientific UV Series Now UVA Series ; Product Line Modification Bulletin

                Polaris Scientific Ultraviolet Systems have fast become a product of preference for water treatment professionals globally. Polaris Scientic UV Sterilization Systems are sleek, compact, durable, cost effective systems that provide an exceptional value to consumers worldwide.

                Polaris Scientific is proud to announce that our UV Series line of sterilization systems is now in the process of being replaced by our new UVA Series line which has the added benet of Polaris Scientics New Patented 4 Pin Germicidal Lamp design. The new patented staggered 4 Pin design will be exclusive to Polaris UV customers and will not be available elsewhere. This new lamp pin configuration will provide an added benefit to our worldwide network of distributors and OEM’s in their service calls and replacement part business. WECO Filters is an authorized distributor of Polaris UV and UVA disinfection systems and parts.

                Polaris Updates Pin Design

                EFFICIENT EASY INSTALLATION DESIGN

                The UVA Series connector cup design allows for a fast secure connection from the ballast to the lamp. No special tools are needed for the installation and it makes maintenance fast and easy. The heavy duty wire and connector connect easily to the lamp and the cup design hermetically secures and holds the connection in place. Both Lamp and Ballast will provide all the benefits of the new Patented design.

                U.S. PATENT D751506

                The Polaris Scientic UVA Series Germicidal Lamp Pin Design is patented under United States Patent Number: D751506 and is protected by U.S. Patent and Trademark Laws.

                Polaris UV to UVA lamps and ballast.

                UV SYSTEMS:
                1-6 GPM EB-1024 (old 4 pin) New UVA’s take BEB-1024 (new staggered 4 pin)
                8-200 GPM EB-2439 (old 4 pin) New UVA’s take BEB-2439 (new staggered 4 pin)


                LAMPS:
                1 GPM take GL10SE4P (old 4 pin) GL10PP (new staggered 4 pin)
                2 GPM take GL14SE4P (old 4 pin) GL14PP (new 4 staggered 4 pin)
                4 GPM take GL17SE4P (old 4 pin) GL17PP (new 4 staggered 4 pin)
                6 GPM take GL24SE4P (old 4 pin) GL24PP (new 4 staggered 4 pin)
                8 GPM take GL32SE4P (old 4 pin) GL32PP (new 4 staggered 4 pin)
                12 GPM take GL39SE4P (old 4 pin) GL39PP (new 4 staggered 4 pin)
                24-200 GPM take GL39SE4P (old 4 pin) GL39PP (new 4 staggered 4 pin)


                QUARTZ TUBES: (same no change)
                1 GPM QS10
                2 GPM QS14
                4 GPM QS17
                6 GPM QS24
                8 GPM QS32
                12-200GPM QS39

                Contact WECO Filters for assistance with your parts for your Polaris UV system.

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